2. Interstitial Cystitis (IC)
Unlike the kind of cystitis that can be treated with antibiotics, IC is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder wall. Some of the symptoms are an urge to urinate frequently, stinging the area surrounding the urethra, increased nighttime voiding (urinating), and a variety of pelvic and sexual pain symptoms.
3. Irritable Bowel (IBS)
Constipation and/or diarrhea are symptoms of this syndrome. Some women find that IBS flare ups correlate to an increase in vaginal irritation. Therefore foods that aggravate the bowel may also cause vaginal symptoms.
4. Lichen Sclerosis
This is an inflammatory chronic skin condition most common in the external genital area. Symptoms may range from none (for years) to mild or severe itching and irritation. Lichen Sclerosis does appear to be relatively prevalent in women with vulvodynia and sexual pain disorders. It can cause splitting and "paper cut" type tears in the region around the vaginal opening.
5. Myofascial Pain Syndrome
Myofascia are the muscles and connective tissue in the body. When in spasm, knots and "trigger points" develop that need to be released to eliminate pain and restore function. These trigger points in the pelvic myofascia can cause sexual pain.
6. Pelvic Endometriosis
Endometriosis occurs when endometrial cells, normally found only in the uterus, become imbedded in locations outside the uterus. These locations are usually within the pelvic cavity on reproductive organs, supportive ligaments, or structural systems like the bladder or bowel.
This misplaced tissue forms growths that look like dark spots. These growths respond to the menstrual cycle and break down and bleed each month, the same way the lining of the uterus does. This causes cyclical pain and inflammation - called dysmenorrhea. Additionally, the body’s immune response to this internal bleeding and breakdown of blood and tissues begins to cause scar tissue and adhesions (affected pelvic organs or structures adhering to one another) which can also cause ongoing pain.
Endometriosis affects millions of women but is often over diagnosed as the primary cause of pelvic and sexual pain. If the pain or deep sexual discomfort is intermittent and all month long, even though it may become worse leading up to the menstrual period, endometriosis may not be the primary reason for the pain. If you have been diagnosed and treated for endometriosis and you don't begin to get signifiant improvement either after medication or surgical treatment, insist on further evaluation for bladder, bowel, musculoskeletal, or nerve related causes of your pain.
7. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction
The pelvic floor encompasses all the muscles that surround and support the pelvic organs (uterus, bladder, and lower bowel). To function appropriately, these muscles must be toned. However, elevated tone in the pelvic floor muscles, making them too tight, tense, and "turned on" can result in painful sex and difficulty with bladder and bowel function. On the other hand, too little tone can lead to bladder and bowel incontinence (leakage) or prolapse (falling down, out of normal position). Pelvic floor dysfunction can refer to either too much or too little tone.
8. Previous life-long Pelvic Trauma
Events such as physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, surgeries, accidental injuries, and cumulative aggravating structural factors can play a role in sexual pain. Additional possibilities include years of various sports activities such as gymnastics, cheerleading, track & field, soccer, ballet dancing, horseback riding, skating, etc. More and more women have engaged heavily and competitively in these sports over the past few decades, making them extremely vulnerable to these types of bodily stresses. The nervous system bio-chemically "imprints" and "remembers" these accumulated traumas, and any or all of these may predispose a young woman to sexual and pelvic pain disorders even years later.
9. Generalized Vulvodynia
Generalized vulvodynia is a subset of vulvodynia, it is less common than vulvar vestibulodynia (see below) and often very difficult to successfully treat. It is a deeper, more generalized pain. Pain can occur spontaneously (unprovoked) or in response to touch or pressure (provoked, such as by intercourse). Pain emanating from the pudendal nerve and its distribution may be a significant contributor to this condition in some cases (pudendal neuralgia).
10. Vulvar Vestibulodynia (Vestibulitis)
This condition causes pain and inflammation at the vaginal opening. Women describe the pain as burning, itching, raw, sandpaper, ground glass, and stinging. It is commonly mistaken for vaginal yeast infections and is often treated incorrectly. Vestibulitis is the most common reason for entrance pain (painful sex) in reproductive-aged women.
Stephanie Yeager: Passionate about spreading the word of hope and healing for those like her, influencing a paradigm shift in the medical community toward greater understanding of chronic pelvic pain disorders, and prevention initiatives that may protect young women before onset can occur.